Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics

Prof. Dr. Paul G. Layer

What is Developmental Biology?

Developmental Biology analyses highly integrated feedback processes at molecular, cellular and histological levels, which direct the entire development from fertilisation of the egg through maturation of the adult organism. As systems of study, we use appropriate model embryos, e.g. from chicken, zebrafish or mouse.

This knowledge is ground-breaking for all biomedical progress (e.g. stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, cancer research), as well as for a better understanding of evolution. In this group, we investigate molecular and cellular processes of development of the eyes (retina), the brain, or limbs. Thereby, acetylcholine and its protein components (e.g. cholinesterases) play a central role.

What is Neurogenetics?

Neurogenetics as part of developmental biology investigates molecular bases of the embryonic formation of nervous systems. A general question is, how a huge number of specific neuronal connections as required for a functional brain (1016/person) can be established, given that the total number of genes in man is very limited (2x104/person). Thereby, we analyse roles of acetylcholine and various growth factors.

Due to its simple layered structure, we focus on the development of the vertebrate retina in eyes from chicken and mouse embryos. Our cell biological techniques also allow us to culture artificial retinal tissues from stem cells (e.g. retinal spheroids), as well as develop methods for replacement of animal experiments.

Possible schemes of developmental actions of ACh and
AChE in neurite growth
Picture: Paul Layer

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) degrading the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is a most remarkable protein, not only because it is one of the fastest enzymes in nature, but also since it appears in many molecular forms and is regulated by elaborate genetic networks. Moreover, specific inhibitors of cholinesterase (ChEs) play major roles in everyday life as medical therapeutics, as pesticides in agriculture and households, and as chemical warfare agents (nerve gases).

As revealed by sensitive histochemical procedures, AChE is expressed specifically in many tissues during development and in many mature organisms, as well as in healthy and diseased states. Therefore it is not surprising that there has been a long-standing search for additional, “non-classical” functions of cholinesterases (ChEs). In principle, AChE could either act non-enzymatically, e.g. exerting cell adhesive roles, or, alternatively, it could work within the frame of classic cholinergic systems, but in non-neural tissues. AChE might be considered a highly co-opting protein, since possibly it combines such various functions within one molecule.

Our research into ChEs functioning has focused upon i) the expression of ChEs in the neural tube and their close relation to cell proliferation and differentiation, ii) that AChE expression reflects a polycentric brain development, iii) the retina as a model for AChE functioning in neural network formation, and iv) non-neural ChEs in limb development and mature bones. Also, possible roles of AChE in neuritic growth and of cholinergic regulations in stem cells.

AChE functions in proper formation of the mouse retina. An AChE knockout mouse (right) presents disturbed sublayer formation of the inner plexiform layer (IPL; a synaptic layer). Staining: calretinin. Details in Bytyqi et al. 2004.

Possible schemes of developmental actions of ACh and AChE in neurite growth, cell contact formation and cell signaling. (a) secreted ACh from growth cone stops its further advancement („deceleration“). (b) approaching an AChE+ target cell, secreted ACh is degraded and growth cone is further attracted („attraction“), (c) „adhesion“ between two cells could be further stabilised by heterotypic interaction of ChED proteins (e.g. neuroligins, AChE) with neurexins. (d) Alternatively, AChE can bind to laminin of the ECM, which in turn can bind to integrin-2, enabling „adhesion“ and „signaling“ into cell interior. Further see Vogel-Höpker et al. 2010

Picture: Paul Layer

The highly ordered organisation of cell types within distinct cell layers is a typical feature of many areas of vertebrate brains, representing a necessary requisite of functional neuronal networks. We study the formation of cell layers both in vivo and in vitro, by using as model systems retinae from chick embryos and neonatal rodents.

As our major in vitro approach, we take advantage of so called retinal spheroids, e.g. the cellular reconstruction of more or less complete 3-dimensional retinal tissue spheres from fully dispersed cells. This technology enables us to define the requirements and constraints of the formation of retinal tissues by a cell-to-cell reaggregation analysis. Noticeably, spheres are fully amenable for molecular intervention towards specific aspects of retinal differentiation, e.g. by use of siRNA techniques.

Retinal spheroids can be used i) for retinal tissue engineering, provided that appropriate stem cells become available, and ii) for developing living biosensors (e.g. testing of environmentally dangerous chemicals, such as pesticides), and thus can become valuable tools to reduce animal experimentation.

1948 born in Beutelsbach / Stuttgart, Germany.

1969 – 1973 Studies of food sciences in Stuttgart-Hohenheim.

1976 PhD at University of Konstanz under Prof. F. Hucho on Photoaffinty labeling of nicotinic cholinergic receptor and acetylcholinesterase.

1977 – 1979 Postdoc at Stanford School of Medicine, USA with Prof. E. Shooter. Signaltransduction & Degradation of Nerve growth factor (NGF).

1980 – 1991 Research on development of vertebrate brains and retina in department of Prof. A. Gierer at MPI for Devel. Biol., Tübingen; “Heisenberg”-grant. Habilitation in “Zoologie” at University of Tübingen.

1986, 1990 Extended research periods at the MPG-Guest laboratory at the Institute for Cell Biology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, VR China.

since 1991 – 2015 Full Professor for Devel Biol & Neurogenetics at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUDa). Teaching of Developmental, Human & Evolutionary Biology.

1995 – 1996 Director of the Institute for Zoology, TUDa.

1999 Invited Guest Professor for Cognitive & Brain Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

1993 – 1994 Dean of Faculty for Biology at TUDa (Fachbereich Biologie der TUDa)

2002 – 2005

1993-date Mentor for most qualified students from all disciplines at TUDa, supported by Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes. Award of Daidalos medal in 2013.

2015 retirement from teaching & research position.

2015-date Forschungsmentor of TUDa, supporting young investigators with their grant applications.

Manyfold international cooperations: EU, USA, China, India, Japan. Reviewer for international journals of neuroscience and developmental biology, as well as for many research foundations.

Publication of approx. 180 peer reviewed articles in internationally renowned journals on the following research topics: development of retina, brain vesicles, somites, trunk, appendages of chicken embryo and mouse embryos, establishment of retinal spheroid technologies, tissue engineering of retina, non-neuronal embryonic functions of cholinesterases and cholinergic systems, stem cell biology, radiation biology; science philosophy.

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Number of items: 153.


Luo, Xiaohe ; Lauwers, Marianne ; Layer, Paul G. ; Wen, Chunyi (2021):
Non-neuronal Role of Acetylcholinesterase in Bone Development and Degeneration.
In: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8, p. 620543. ISSN 2296-634X,
DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2020.620543,

Frohns, Florian ; Frohns, Antonia ; Kramer, Johanna ; Meurer, Katharina ; Rohrer-Bley, Carla ; Solovei, Irina ; Hicks, David ; Layer, Paul G. ; Löbrich, Markus (2021):
Differences in the Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks between Rod Photoreceptors of Rodents, Pigs, and Humans. (Publisher's Version)
In: Cells, 9 (4), MDPI, e-ISSN 2073-4409,
DOI: 10.26083/tuprints-00019030,


Frohns, Florian ; Frohns, Antonia ; Kramer, Johanna ; Meurer, Katharina ; Rohrer-Bley, Carla ; Solovei, Irina ; Hicks, David ; Layer, Paul G. ; Löbrich, Markus (2020):
Differences in the Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks between Rod Photoreceptors of Rodents, Pigs, and Humans.
In: Cells, 9 (4), pp. E947. ISSN 2073-4409,
DOI: 10.3390/cells9040947,

Spieker, Janine ; Frieß, Johannes L. ; Sperling, Laura ; Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (2020):
Cholinergic control of bone development and beyond.
In: International immunopharmacology, 83, p. 106405. ISSN 1878-1705,
DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106405,


Bachmann, Gesine ; Frohns, Florian ; Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Bausch, Alexander ; Layer, Paul G. (2019):
IPL Sublamination in Chicken Retinal Spheroids Is Initiated via Müller Cells and Cholinergic Differentiation, and Is Disrupted by NMDA Signaling.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 60 (14), pp. 4759-4773. ISSN 1552-5783,
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.18-24952,

Shirahama, Misaki ; Steinfeld, Ichie ; Karaiwa, Akari ; Taketani, Shigeru ; Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Araki, Masasuke (2019):
Change in the developmental fate of the chick optic vesicle from the neural retina to the telencephalon.
In: Development, Growth & Differentiation, 61 (3), pp. 252-262. ISSN 0012-1592,
DOI: 10.1111/dgd.12599,


Heselich, Anja ; Frieß, Johannes L. ; Ritter, Sylvia ; Benz, Naja P. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Thielemann, Christiane (2018):
High LET radiation shows no major cellular and functional effects on primary cardiomyocytes in vitro.
In: Life sciences in space research, 16, pp. 93-100. ISSN 2214-5532,

Thomsen, Andreas R. ; Aldrian, Christine ; Bronsert, Peter ; Thomann, Yi ; Nanko, Norbert ; Melin, Nicolas ; Rücker, Gerta ; Follo, Marie ; Grosu, Anca L. ; Niedermann, Gabriele ; Layer, Paul G. ; Heselich, Anja ; Lund, Per G. (2018):
A deep conical agarose microwell array for adhesion independent three-dimensional cell culture and dynamic volume measurement.
In: Lab on a chip, 18 (1), pp. 179-189. ISSN 1473-0189,


König, Anke ; Zöller, Nadja ; Kippenberger, Stefan ; Bernd, August ; Kaufmann, Roland ; Layer, Paul G. ; Heselich, Anja (2017):
Non-thermal near-infrared exposure photobiomodulates cellular responses to ionizing radiation in human full thickness skin models.
In: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 178, pp. 115-123. ISSN 1873-2682,

Steinfeld, Jörg ; Steinfeld, Ichie ; Bausch, Alexander ; Coronato, Nicola ; Hampel, Meggi-Lee ; Depner, Heike ; Layer, Paul G. ; Vogel-Höpker, A. (2017):
BMP-induced reprogramming of the neural retina into retinal pigment epithelium requires Wnt signalling.
In: Biology open, 6 (7), pp. 979-992. [Article]

König, Anke ; Heselich, Anja ; Zöller, N. ; Kaufmann, R. ; Kippenberger, S. ; Layer, Paul G. (2017):
Evaluation of the radiation-induced stress response in a human full thickness skin model.
In: Experimental dermatology, 26 (3), pp. E87. ISSN 0906-6705,

Spieker, Janine ; Mudersbach, Thomas ; Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (2017):
Endochondral Ossification Is Accelerated in Cholinesterase-Deficient Mice and in Avian Mesenchymal Micromass Cultures.
In: PloS one, 12 (1), ISSN 1932-6203,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170252,


Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Manakov, Vadim ; Cucu, Aljona ; Fournier, Claudia ; Layer, Paul G. (2016):
Inflammatory effects of TNFα are counteracted by X-ray irradiation and AChE inhibition in mouse micromass cultures.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 259 (Pt. B), pp. 313-318. ISSN 1872-7786,

Mayer, Margot ; Kaiser, Nicole ; Layer, Paul G. ; Frohns, Florian (2016):
Cell Cycle Regulation and Apoptotic Responses of the Embryonic Chick Retina by Ionizing Radiation.
In: PloS one, 11 (5), pp. e0155093. ISSN 1932-6203,

Spieker, Janine ; Ackermann, Anica ; Salfelder, Anika ; Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (2016):
Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.
In: PloS one, 11 (8), pp. e0161675. ISSN 1932-6203,


Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Christophel, Jeanette ; Bachmann, Gesine ; Greif, Alexander ; Layer, Paul G. (2015):
PEDF counteracts DL-α-aminoadipate toxicity and rescues gliotoxic damages in RPE-free chicken retinal explants.
In: Experimental eye research, 134, pp. 111-122. ISSN 1096-0007,

Frieß, Johannes L. ; Heselich, Anja ; Ritter, Sylvia ; Haber, Angelina ; Kaiser, Nicole ; Layer, Paul G. ; Thielemann, Christiane (2015):
Electrophysiologic and cellular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after X-ray irradiation.
In: Mutation research, 777, pp. 1-10. ISSN 1873-135X,

Simoniello, Palma ; Wiedemann, Julia ; Zink, Joana ; Thoennes, Eva ; Stange, Maike ; Layer, Paul G. ; Kovacs, Maximilian ; Podda, Maurizio ; Durante, Marco ; Fournier, Claudia (2015):
Exposure to Carbon Ions Triggers Proinflammatory Signals and Changes in Homeostasis and Epidermal Tissue Organization to a Similar Extent as Photons.
In: Frontiers in oncology, 5, p. 294. ISSN 2234-943X,


Frieß, Johannes ; Heselich, Anja ; Ritter, Sylvia ; Layer, Paul G. ; Thielemann, Christiane (2014):
Electrophysiologic and molecular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after heavy ion irradiation in the frame of the ESA IBER-10 program.
In: Journal of radiation research, 55 (Suppl 1), pp. i40-i41. ISSN 1349-9157,

Frohns, Antonia ; Frohns, Florian ; Naumann, Steffen C. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Löbrich, Markus (2014):
Inefficient Double-Strand Break Repair in Murine Rod Photoreceptors with Inverted Heterochromatin Organization.
In: Current biology : CB, 24 (10), pp. 1080-1090. ISSN 1879-0445,

Bodur, Ebru ; Layer, Paul G. (2014):
PKC stimulation increases expression of cholinesterases in R28 cell line.
In: Turkish Journal of Biochemistry - Turk Biyokimya Dergisi, 39 (2), pp. 201-205. ISSN 0250-4685,


Layer, Paul G. ; Klaczinski, Janine ; Salfelder, Anika ; Sperling, Laura E. ; Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Tuschl, Corina ; Vogel-Höpker, A. (2013):
Cholinesterases in development: AChE as a firewall to inhibit cell proliferation and support differentiation.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 203 (1), pp. 269-276. ISSN 1872-7786,

Steinfeld, Jörg ; Steinfeld, Ichie ; Coronato, Nicola ; Hampel, Meggi-Lee ; Layer, Paul G. ; Araki, Masasuke ; Vogel-Höpker, A. (2013):
RPE specification in the chick is mediated by surface ectoderm-derived BMP and Wnt signalling.
In: Development (Cambridge, England), 140 (24), pp. 4959-69. ISSN 1477-9129,

Layer, Paul G. ; Klaczinski, Janine ; Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Thangaraj, Gopenath (2013):
Developmental cholinergic mechanism : Do not forget the colinesterases!
In: Autonomic neuroscience : basic and clinical, 177, pp. 1-65. [Article]


Vogel-Höpker, A. ; Sperling, Laura E. ; Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Co-opting functions of cholinesterases in neural, limb and stem cell development.
In: Protein and peptide letters, 19 (2), pp. 155-164. ISSN 1875-5305,

Heselich, Anja ; Frohns, Florian ; Frohns, Antonia ; Naumann, Steffen C. ; Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Near-infrared exposure changes cellular responses to ionizing radiation.
In: Photochemistry and photobiology, 88 (1), pp. 135-46. ISSN 1751-1097,

Daus, Andreas W. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Thielemann, Christiane (2012):
A spheroid-based biosensor for the label-free detection of drug-induced field potential alterations.
In: Sensors and actuators B: Chemical, 165 (1), pp. 53-58. [Article]

Sperling, Laura E. ; Klaczinski, Janine ; Schütz, Corina ; Rudolph, Lydia ; Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Mouse acetylcholinesterase enhances neurite outgrowth of rat r28 cells through interaction with laminin-1.
In: PloS one, 7 (5), pp. e36683. ISSN 1932-6203,

Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Greif, Alexander ; Bachmann, Gesine ; Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Intricate paths of cells and networks becoming "Cholinergic" in the embryonic chicken retina.
In: The Journal of comparative neurology, 520 (14), pp. 3181-93. ISSN 1096-9861,


Bodur, Ebru ; Layer, Paul G. (2011):
Counter-regulation of cholinesterases: differential activation of PKC and ERK signaling in retinal cells through BChE knockdown.
In: Biochimie, 93 (3), pp. 469-76. ISSN 1638-6183,

Berchtold, Doris ; Fesser, Stephanie ; Bachmann, Gesine ; Kaiser, Alexander ; Eilert, John-Christian ; Frohns, Florian ; Sadoni, Nicolas ; Muck, Joscha ; Kremmer, Elisabeth ; Eick, Dirk ; Layer, Paul G. ; Zink, Daniele (2011):
Nuclei of chicken neurons in tissues and three-dimensional cell cultures are organized into distinct radial zones.
In: Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 19 (2), pp. 165-82. ISSN 1573-6849,

Daus, Andreas W. ; Goldhammer, Michael ; Layer, Paul G. ; Thielemann, Christiane (2011):
Electromagnetic exposure of scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture systems.
In: Bioelectromagnetics, 32 (5), pp. 351-9. ISSN 1521-186X,

Thangaraj, Gopenath ; Greif, Alexander ; Layer, Paul G. (2011):
Simple explant culture of the embryonic chicken retina with long-term preservation of photoreceptors.
In: Experimental eye research, 93 (4), pp. 556-64. ISSN 1096-0007,


Landgraf, Dominic ; Barth, Mareike ; Layer, Paul G. ; Sperling, Laura E. (2010):
Acetylcholine as a possible signaling molecule in embryonic stem cells: studies on survival, proliferation and death.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 187 (1-3), pp. 115-9. ISSN 1872-7786,

Layer, Paul G. ; Araki, Masasuke ; Vogel-Höpker, A. (2010):
New concepts for reconstruction of retinal and pigment epithelial tissues.
In: Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 5 (4), pp. 523-543. [Article]


Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Wie Schlangen ihre Beine verloren : die Beziehung zwischen Evolutionstheorie und Entwicklungstheorie.
In: hoch3, p. 7. Technische Universität Darmstadt, [Article]

Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Evolution : Evolutionary Theory und Developmental Biology werden kombiniert zu „EvoDevo“.
In: Darmstädter Echo, (Wissenschaftsseite), [Article]

Frohns, Florian ; Mager, Magnus ; Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Basic fibroblast growth factor increases the precursor pool of photoreceptors, but inhibits their differentiation and apoptosis in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 29 (10), pp. 1931-42. ISSN 1460-9568,

Rajesh, Ramanna V. ; Chitra, Loganathan ; Layer, Paul G. ; Boopathy, Rathanam (2009):
The aryl acylamidase activity is much more sensitive to Alzheimer drugs than the esterase activity of acetylcholinesterase in chicken embryonic brain.
In: Biochimie, 91 (9), pp. 1087-94. ISSN 1638-6183,

Rajesh, Ramanna V. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Boopathy, Rathanam (2009):
High aryl acylamidase activity associated with cobra venom acetylcholinesterase: biological significance.
In: Biochimie, 91 (11-12), pp. 1450-6. ISSN 1638-6183,

Volpert, Katja N. ; Tombran-Tink, Joyce ; Barnstable, Colin ; Layer, Paul G. (2009):
PEDF and GDNF are key regulators of photoreceptor development and retinal neurogenesis in reaggregates from chick embryonic retina.
In: Journal of ocular biology, diseases, and informatics, 2 (1), pp. 1-11. ISSN 1936-8445,

Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Doppelkopf und Schrumpfbein : Evolutionsspiele im Embryo.
In: labor&more, (5), p. 2. [Article]

Layer, Paul G.
Souvignier, Georg (ed.) (2009):
Über Freiheiten des Menschen: mit dem Gehirn zur Welt- und dann zur Gotterkenntnis.
In: Gottesbilder : an der Grenze zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Theologie, pp. 144-160, Darmstadt, WBG, ISBN 978-3-534-22149-3,
[Book Section]


Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Vom Überlebenskampf von Rassen und Genen : Darwins Abstammungslehre weltanschaulich instrumentalisiert vom Dritten Reich bis heute : Vortrag in der Odenwald-Akademie in der Synagoge Michelstadt am 13.03.2008.
Michelstadt, 13.03.2008, [Conference or Workshop Item]

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Acetylcholinesterase in cell adhesion, neurite growth and network formation.
In: The FEBS journal, 275 (4), pp. 618-24. ISSN 1742-464X,

Rieke, Matthias ; Gottwald, Eric ; Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich ; Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Tissue reconstruction in 3D-spheroids from rodent retina in a motion-free, bioreactor-based microstructure.
In: Lab on a chip, 8 (12), pp. 2206-13. ISSN 1473-0197,

Sperling, L. E. ; Steinert, G. ; Boutter, J. ; Landgraf, D. ; Hescheler, J. ; Pollet, D. ; Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Characterisation of cholinesterase expression during murine embryonic stem cell differentiation.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 175 (1-3), pp. 156-60. ISSN 0009-2797,


Boopathy, Rathanam ; Rajesh, Ramanna Valmiki ; Darvesh, Sultan ; Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Human serum cholinesterase from liver pathological samples exhibit highly elevated aryl acylamidase activity.
In: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 380 (1-2), pp. 151-6. ISSN 0009-8981,

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Steinert, Gunnar ; Koehler, Alexander ; Wessler, Ignaz ; Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Expression and possible functions of the cholinergic system in a murine embryonic stem cell line.
In: Life sciences, 80 (24-25), pp. 2375-9. ISSN 0024-3205,

Bytyqi, Afrim H. ; Bachmann, Gesine ; Rieke, Matthias ; Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Cell-by-cell reconstruction in reaggregates from neonatal gerbil retina begins from the inner retina and is promoted by retinal pigmented epithelium.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 26 (6), pp. 1560-74. ISSN 0953-816X,

Volpert, Katja N. ; Rothermel, Andrée ; Layer, Paul G. (2007):
GDNF stimulates rod photoreceptors and dopaminergic amacrine cells in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 48 (11), pp. 5306-14. ISSN 0146-0404,


Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Leichtes Bauen in der Natur.
In: Thema Forschung, pp. 4-8. [Article]

Rothermel, Andree ; Burghardt, Mirjam ; Volpert, Katja ; Robitzki, Andrea ; Layer, Paul G. ; Lantzsch, Christina (2006):
Knock-down of GFR-alpha-4 expression by RNA interference affects the development of retinal cell types in three-dimensional histotypic retinal spheres.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 47 (6), pp. 2716-2725. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Christ, Elmar ; Becker-Roeck, Michaela ; Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Expression patterns of neurexin-1 and neuroligins in brain and retina of the chick embryo.
In: Neuroscience letters, 3, pp. 114-117. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Mocko, J. B. ; Becker-Roeck, Michaela ; Smidek-Huhn, Jutta ; Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Exposure to diazinon alters in vitro retinogenesis : retinospheroid morphology, development of chicken retinal cell types and gene expression.
In: Toxicological sciences, 89, pp. 314-324. [Article]

Manoharan, Indumathi ; Wieseler, Stacy ; Layer, Paul G. ; Lockridge, Oksana ; Boopathy, Rathanam (2006):
Naturally occurring mutation Leu307Pro of human butyrylcholinesterase in the Vysya community of India.
In: Pharmacogenetics and genomics, 16 (7), pp. 461-468. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Steinert, G. ; Klaczinski, J. ; Becker-Roeck, Michaela ; Bytyqi, Afrim H. ; Layer, Paul G. (2006):
On functions of cholinesterases during embryonic development.
In: Journal of molecular neuroscience, 30 (1-2), pp. 201-204. [Article]


Bytyqi, Afrim H. ; Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Lamina formation in the Mongolian gerbil retina (Meriones unguiculatus).
In: Anatomy & embryology, 209 (3), pp. 217-226. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Vernünftiges und vernünftig Vermutetes zu Gehirn, Geist und Gott.
In: Arnoldshainer Texte, In: Gott - Geist - Gehirn : religiöse Erfahrungen im Lichte der neuesten Hirnforschung, pp. 134-161, Frankfurt am Main, Haag + Herchen, ISBN 3-89846-356-7,
[Book Section]

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Weiss, B. ; Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Cytochrome-c oxidase is one of several genes elevated in marginal retina of the chick embryo.
In: Neuroscience, 132, pp. 665-672. [Article]

Rothermel, Andree ; Biedermann, Thomas ; Weigel, Winnie ; Kurz, Randy ; Rüffer, Markus ; Layer, Paul G. ; Robitzki, Andrea (2005):
Artificial design of three-dimensional retina-like tissue from dissociated cells of the mammalian retina by rotation-mediated cell aggregation.
In: Tissue engineering, 11 (11-12), pp. 1749-1756. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. ; Allebrandt, Karla V. ; Andermann, P. ; Bodur, E. ; Boopathy, Rathanam ; Bytyqi, Afrim H. ; Paraoanu, Laura E. (2005):
On the multifunctionally of cholinesterases.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157 (15), pp. 37-41. [Article]

Layer, Paul G.
Rossmann, Torsten ; Tropea, Cameron (eds.) (2005):
Mit Stammzellen und Tissue Engineering zu Netzhautimplantaten.
In: Bionik : aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse in Natur-, Ingenieur- und Geisteswissenschaft, pp. 439-449, Berlin [u.a.], Springer, ISBN 3-540-21890-4,
[Book Section]

Aluigi, M. G. ; Angelini, C. ; Falugi, C. ; Fossa, R. ; Genever, P. ; Gallus, L. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Prestipino, G. ; Rakonczay, Z. ; Sgro, M. ; Thielecke, H. ; Trombino, S. (2005):
Interaction between organophosphate compounds and cholinergic functions during development.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 1, pp. 305-316. [Article]

Allebrandt, Karla V. ; Rajesh, Valmiki ; Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aryl acylamidase (AAA) during early zebrafish embryogenesis.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157-158, pp. 353-355. ISSN 0009-2797,

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Mouse AChE binds in vivo to domain IV of laminin-1beta.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157-158, pp. 411-413. ISSN 0009-2797,

Jacob, V. ; Rothermel, Andree ; Wolf, Peter ; Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Rhodopsin, violet and blue opsin expressions in the chick are highly dependent on tissue and serum conditions.
In: Cells tissues organs, 180 (3), pp. 159-168. [Article]


Rothermel, Andrée ; Volpert, Katja ; Schlichting, Ralf ; Huhn, Jutta ; Stotz-Reimers, Meike ; Robitzki, Andrea A. ; Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Spatial and temporal expression patterns of GDNF family receptor alpha4 in the developing chicken retina.
In: Gene expression patterns : GEP, 4 (1), pp. 59-63. ISSN 1567-133X,

Boopathy, Rathanam ; Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Aryl acylamidase activity on acetylcholinesterase is high during early chicken brain development.
In: The protein journal, 23 (5), pp. 325-33. ISSN 1572-3887,

Paraoanu, Laura E. ; Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Mouse acetylcholinesterase interacts in yeast with the extracellular matrix component laminin-1beta.
In: FEBS letters, 576 (1-2), pp. 161-4. ISSN 0014-5793,

Bytyqi, Afrim H. ; Lockridge, Oksana ; Duysen, Ellen ; Wang, Yuxia ; Wolfrum, Uwe ; Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Impaired formation of the inner retina in an AChE knockout mouse results in degeneration of all photoreceptors.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 20 (11), pp. 2953-62. ISSN 0953-816X,

Dabouras, Vasili ; Rothermel, Andrée ; Reiniger-Mack, Alexandra ; Wien, Sascha L. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Robitzki, Andrea (2004):
Exogenous application of glucose induces aging in rat cerebral oligodendrocytes as revealed by alteration in telomere length.
In: Neuroscience letters, 368 (1), pp. 68-72. [Article]

Seydewitz, Vera ; Rothermel, Andrée ; Fuhrmann, Sabine ; Schneider, Anikó ; De Grip, Willem J. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Hofmann, Hans-Dieter (2004):
Expression of CNTF receptor-alpha in chick violet-sensitive cones with unique morphologic properties.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 45 (2), pp. 655-61. ISSN 0146-0404,


Naruoka, Hidenori ; Kojima, Ryosuke ; Ohmasa, Motoko ; Layer, Paul G. ; Saito, Takehiko (2003):
Transient muscarinic calcium mobilisation in transdifferentiating as in reaggregating embyronic chick retinae.
In: Developmental brain research, 143 (2), pp. 233-244. [Article]

Rothermel, Andrée ; Layer, Paul G. (2003):
GDNF regulates chicken rod photoreceptor development and survival in reaggregated histotypic retinal spheres.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 44 (5), pp. 2221-2228. [Article]

Layer, Paul G.
Schmidt, Jan C. (ed.) (2003):
Zu Evolution und Entwicklung von Hirn und Bewußtsein oder: von Zellen, neuronalen Netzen und quälender Qualia.
In: Der entthronte Mensch : Anfragen der Neurowissenschaften an unser Menschenbild, pp. 79-96, Paderborn, Mentis, ISBN 3-89785-296-9.,
[Book Section]

Layer, Paul G.
Bender, Wolfgang ; Schmidt, Jan C. (eds.) (2003):
Der biomedizinische Fortschritt.
In: Darmstädter interdisziplinäre Beiträge, In: Zukunftsorientierte Wissenschaft : prospektive Wissenschafts- und Technikbewertung, pp. 63-75, Münster, Agenda-Verl., ISBN 3-89688-199-X,
[Book Section]


Layer, Paul G. ; Robitzki, Andrea (2002):
Von Stammzellen zu Gewebemodellen und Biosensoren in Medizin und Umwelttechnik.
In: Bionik : biologisch-technische Systeme. (Thema Forschung), (2), pp. 92-97. [Article]

Anselmet, Alain ; Mayat, Ebrahim ; Wietek, Stefan ; Layer, Paul G. ; Payrastre, Bernard ; Massoulié, Jean (2002):
Non-antisense cellular responses to oligonucleotides.
In: FEBS letters, 510 (3), pp. 175-80. ISSN 0014-5793,

Layer, Paul G. ; Robitzki, Andrea ; Rothermel, Andrée ; Willbold, Elmar (2002):
Of layers and spheres: the reaggregate approach in tissue engineering.
In: Trends in neurosciences, 25 (3), pp. 131-4. ISSN 0166-2236,

Willbold, Elmar ; Huhn, Jutta ; Korf, Horst-Werner ; Voisin, Pierre ; Layer, Paul G. (2002):
Light-dark and circadian melatonin rhythms are established de novo in re-aggregates of the embryonic chicken retina.
In: Developmental neuroscience, 24 (6), pp. 504-11. ISSN 0378-5866,


Layer, Paul G. ; Rothermel, A. ; Willbold, E. (2001):
From stem cells towards neural layers: a lesson from re-aggregated embryonic retinal cells.
12, In: NeuroReport, pp. A39-A46. [Article]

Willbold, Elmar ; Rothermel, A. ; Huhn, J. ; Reinicke, M. ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Cerebellar glia cells induce a correct laminar organization in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Cells tissues organs, 169 (2), pp. 104-112. [Article]

Keller, Markus ; Robitzki, Andrea ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Heterologous expression of acetylcholinesterase affects proliferation and glial cytoskeleton of adherent chicken retinal cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 306, pp. 187-198. [Article]

Robitzki, Andrea ; Mack, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Die in vitro Netzhaut als Modell des zentralen Nervensystems: Entwicklung neuer Diagnostik- und Therapieformen für neurodegenerative Erkrankungen.
In: BIOforum, 24, pp. 222-225. [Article]

Rothermel, Andrée ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Photoreceptor plasticity in reaggregates of embryonic chick retina: rods depend on proximal cones and on tissue organization.
In: European journal of neuroscience, 13 (5), pp. 949-958. [Article]

Keller, Markus ; Robitzki, Andrea ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Anticholinesterase treatment of chicken retinal cells increases acetylcholinesterase protein independently of protein kinase C.
In: Neuroscience letters, 309 (1), pp. 21-24. [Article]

Willbold, E. ; Rothermel, A. ; Huhn, J. ; Stelck, S. ; Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Inhibition of alpha(1-6)-linked fucose decreases inner retinal cells and increases photoreceptors in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Developmental neuroscience, 23 (6), pp. 464-72. ISSN 0378-5866,


Willbold, E. ; Rothermel, A. ; Tomlinson, S. ; Layer, Paul G. (2000):
Müller glia cells reorganize reaggregating chicken retinal cells into correctly laminated in vitro retinae.
In: Glia, 29 (1), pp. 45-57. ISSN 0894-1491,

Robitzki, A. ; Döll, F. ; Richter-Landsberg, C. ; Layer, Paul G. (2000):
Regulation of the rat oligodendroglia cell line OLN-93 by antisense transfection of butyrylcholinesterase.
In: Glia, 31 (3), pp. 195-205. ISSN 0894-1491,


Layer, Paul G. ; Robitzki, Andrea (1999):
Die Netzhaut als Hirnmodell : von der Zellkultur zur biomedizinischen Technik.
In: Thema Forschung, (2), pp. 20-26. [Article]

Stelck, S. ; Robitzki, A. ; Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1999):
Fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage regulates proliferation and histogenesis in reaggregated retinal spheroids of the chick embryo.
In: Glycobiology, 9 (11), pp. 1171-9. ISSN 0959-6658,

Weitnauer, E. ; Ebert, C. ; Hucho, F. ; Robitzki, A. ; Weise, C. ; Layer, Paul G. (1999):
Butyrylcholinesterase is complexed with transferrin in chicken serum.
In: Journal of protein chemistry, 18 (2), pp. 205-14. ISSN 0277-8033,


Layer, Paul G. ; Rothermel, A. ; Willbold, E. (1998):
Inductive effects of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) on histogenesis of the avian retina as revealed by retinospheroid technology.
In: Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 9 (3), pp. 257-62. ISSN 1084-9521,

Weitnauer, E. ; Robitzki, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Aryl acylamidase activity exhibited by butyrylcholinesterase is higher in chick than in horse, but much lower than in fetal calf serum.
In: Neuroscience letters, 254 (3), pp. 153-6. ISSN 0304-3940,

Robitzki, A. ; Mack, A. ; Hoppe, U. ; Chatonnet, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Butyrylcholinesterase antisense transfection increases apoptosis in differentiating retinal reaggregates of the chick embryo.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 71 (4), pp. p413-20. ISSN 0022-3042,

Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Müller glia cells and their possible roles during retina differentiation in vivo and in vitro.
In: Histology and histopathology, 13 (2), pp. 531-52. ISSN 0213-3911,


Layer, Paul G. ; Rothermel, A. ; Hering, H. ; Wolf, B. ; deGrip, W. J. ; Hicks, D. ; Willbold, E. (1997):
Pigmented epithelium sustains cell proliferation and decreases expression of opsins and acetylcholinesterase in reaggregated chicken retinospheroids.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 9 (9), pp. 1795-803. ISSN 0953-816X,

Rothermel, A. ; Willbold, E. ; Degrip, W. J. ; Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Pigmented epithelium induces complete retinal reconstitution from dispersed embryonic chick retinae in reaggregation culture.
In: Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 264 (1386), pp. 1293-302. ISSN 0962-8452,

Schober, A. ; Minichiello, L. ; Keller, M. ; Huber, K. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Roig-López, J. L. ; García-Arrarás, J. E. ; Klein, R. ; Unsicker, K. (1997):
Reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adrenal medulla and loss of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in TrkA-deficient, but not TrkB-deficient, mice.
In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 17 (3), pp. 891-903. ISSN 0270-6474,

Reiss, Y. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Kröger, S. (1997):
Butyrylcholinesterase-positive cells of the developing chicken retina that are non-cholinergic and GABA-positive.
In: Brain research. Developmental brain research, 100 (1), pp. 62-72. ISSN 0165-3806,

Layer, Paul G. ; Berger, J. ; Kinkl, N. (1997):
Cholinesterases precede "ON-OFF" channel dichotomy in the embryonic chick retina before onset of synaptogenesis.
In: Cell and tissue research, 288 (3), pp. 407-16. ISSN 0302-766X,

Robitzki, A. ; Mack, A. ; Hoppe, U. ; Chatonnet, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Regulation of cholinesterase gene expression affects neuronal differentiation as revealed by transfection studies on reaggregating embryonic chicken retinal cells.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 9 (11), pp. 2394-405. ISSN 0953-816X,

Robitzki, A. ; Mack, A. ; Chatonnet, A. ; Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Transfection of reaggregating embryonic chicken retinal cells with an antisense 5'-DNA butyrylcholinesterase expression vector inhibits proliferation and alters morphogenesis.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 69 (2), pp. 823-33. ISSN 0022-3042,

Willbold, E. ; Reinicke, M. ; Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Müller cell differentiation and column formation in chicken retinospheroids.
In: Journal of brain research, 36 (2), p. 228. [Article]


Weiss, Bettina ; Del Turco, D. ; Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Proliferating and differentiating Schwann cell cultures from embryonic chick sciatic nerve maintained for months in vitro without antimitotics or growth factors.
70, In: European journal of cell biology 70, (2), pp. 106-116. [Article]

Willbold, Elmar ; Mansky, P. ; Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Lateral and radial growth uncoupled in reaggregated retinospheroids of embryonic avian retina.
40, In: International journal of developmental biology, (6), pp. 1151-1159. [Article]

Reiss, Y. ; Kröger, S. ; Grassi, J. ; Tsim, K. W. ; Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Extracellular and asymmetric forms of acetylcholinesterase are expressed on cholinergic and noncholinergic terminal neuropil of the developing chick retina.
In: Cell and tissue research, 286 (1), pp. 13-22. ISSN 0302-766X,

Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Non-classical actions of cholinesterases: role in cellular differentiation, tumorigenesis and Alzheimer's disease.
In: Neurochemistry international, 28 (5-6), pp. 491-5. ISSN 0197-0186,


Willbold, Elmar ; Reinicke, Michael ; Lance-Jones, Cynthia ; Lagenaur, Carl ; Lemmon, Vance ; Layer, Paul G. (1995):
Müller glia stabilizes cell columns during retinal development: lateral migration but not neuropil growth is inhibited in mixed chick-quail retinospheroids.
7, In: European journal of neuroscience, pp. 2277-2284. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. ; Willbold, Elmar (1995):
Novel functions of cholinesterases in development, physiology and disease.
29, In: Progress in histochemistry and cytochemistry, (3), pp. 1-94. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. ; Ebert, C. ; Treskatis, S. ; Weikert, T. ; Willbold, Elmar
Quinn, D. M. (ed.) (1995):
Glycosylated inactive forms of chicken butyrylcholinesterases and their possible functions.
In: Enzymes of the cholinesterase family, pp. 427-434, New York, Plenum Publ. Corp, [Book Section]

Layer, Paul G. (1995):
Nonclassical roles of cholinesterases in the embryonic brain and possible links to Alzheimer disease.
9, In: Alzheimer disease and associated disorders, (Suppl. 2), pp. 29-36. [Article]


Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Butyrylcholinesterase regulates laminar retinogenesis of the chick embryo in vitro.
In: European journal of cell biology, 64 (1), pp. 192-9. ISSN 0171-9335,

Layer, Paul G. ; Willbold, E. (1994):
Cholinesterases in avian neurogenesis.
In: International review of cytology, 151, pp. 139-81. ISSN 0074-7696,

Weikert, T. ; Rathjen, F. G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Use of ELISA to G4 antigen to quantitate neurite outgrowth in the chick both in vivo and in vitro.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 62 (4), pp. 1570-7. ISSN 0022-3042,

Weikert, T. ; Ebert, C. ; Rasched, I. ; Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Novel inactive and distinctively glycosylated forms of butyrylcholinesterase from chicken serum.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 63 (1), pp. 318-25. ISSN 0022-3042,

Weikert, T. ; Layer, Paul G. (1994):
The carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 is present on all inactive, but not on all active forms of chicken butyrylcholinesterase.
In: Neuroscience letters, 176 (1), pp. 9-12. ISSN 0304-3940,

Alber, R. ; Sporns, O. ; Weikert, T. ; Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Cholinesterases and peanut agglutinin binding related to cell proliferation and axonal growth in embryonic chick limbs.
In: Anatomy and embryology, 190 (5), pp. 429-38. ISSN 0340-2061,


Layer, Paul G. ; Willbold, E. (1993):
Histogenesis of the avian retina in reaggregation culture: from dissociated cells to laminar neuronal networks.
In: International review of cytology, 146, pp. 1-47. ISSN 0074-7696,

Layer, Paul G. ; Weikert, T. ; Alber, R. (1993):
Cholinesterases regulate neurite growth of chick nerve cells in vitro by means of a non-enzymatic mechanism.
In: Cell and tissue research, 273 (2), pp. 219-26. ISSN 0302-766X,


Willbold, Elmar ; Layer, Paul G. (1992):
A Hidden Retinal Regenerative Capacity from the Chick Ciliary Margin is Reactivated In Vitro, that is Accompanied by Down-regulation of Butyrylcholinesterase.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 4 (3), pp. 210-220. ISSN 1460-9568,

Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1992):
Formation of neuroblastic layers in chicken retinospheroids: the fibre layer of Chievitz secludes AChE-positive cells from mitotic cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 268 (3), pp. 401-8. ISSN 0302-766X,

Layer, Paul G. ; Weikert, T. ; Willbold, E. (1992):
Chicken retinospheroids as developmental and pharmacological in vitro models: acetylcholinesterase is regulated by its own and by butyrylcholinesterase activity.
In: Cell and tissue research, 268 (3), pp. 409-18. ISSN 0302-766X,

Treskatis, S. ; Ebert, C. ; Layer, Paul G. (1992):
Butyrylcholinesterase from chicken brain is smaller than that from serum: its purification, glycosylation, and membrane association.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 58 (6), pp. 2236-47. ISSN 0022-3042,


Wolburg, H. ; Willbold, E. ; Layer, Paul G. (1991):
Müller glia endfeet, a basal lamina and the polarity of retinal layers form properly in vitro only in the presence of marginal pigmented epithelium.
In: Cell and tissue research, 264 (3), pp. 437-51. ISSN 0302-766X,

Layer, Paul G. (1991):
Cholinesterases during development of the avian nervous system.
In: Cellular and molecular neurobiology, 11 (1), pp. 7-33. ISSN 0272-4340,

Layer, Paul G. ; Kaulich, S. (1991):
Cranial nerve growth in birds is preceded by cholinesterase expression during neural crest cell migration and the formation of an HNK-1 scaffold.
In: Cell and tissue research, 265 (3), pp. 393-407. ISSN 0302-766X,


Layer, Paul G. ; Alber, R. ; Mansky, P. ; Vollmer, G. ; Willbold, E. (1990):
Regeneration of a chimeric retina from single cells in vitro: cell-lineage-dependent formation of radial cell columns by segregated chick and quail cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 259 (2), pp. 187-98. ISSN 0302-766X,

Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Cholinesterases reveal early patterns of neurogenesis in the chick.
In: Acta histochemica. Supplementband, 38, pp. 145-50. ISSN 0567-7556,

Layer, Paul G. ; Makovitzky, J. (1990):
The laminar development of the embryonic chicken retina in vitro as detected by "topo-optical reactions".
In: Acta histochemica. Supplementband, 40, pp. 127-31. ISSN 0567-7556,

Liu, L. ; Jiang, L. Z. ; Layer, Paul G. (1990):
[Effect of pigmented epithelium from different developmental stages of chick embryo on cell growth of retinal explants].
In: Shi yan sheng wu xue bao, 23 (1), pp. 123-6. ISSN 0001-5334,

Weikert, T. ; Rathjen, F. G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Developmental maps of acetylcholinesterase and G4-antigen of the early chicken brain: long-distance tracts originate from AChE-producing cell bodies.
In: Journal of neurobiology, 21 (3), pp. 482-98. ISSN 0022-3034,

Layer, Paul G. ; Alber, R. (1990):
Patterning of chick brain vesicles as revealed by peanut agglutinin and cholinesterases.
In: Development (Cambridge, England), 109 (3), pp. 613-24. ISSN 0950-1991,

Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Cholinesterases preceding major tracts in vertebrate neurogenesis.
In: BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 12 (9), pp. 415-20. ISSN 0265-9247,


Layer, Paul G. ; Willbold, E. (1989):
Embryonic chicken retinal cells can regenerate all cell layers in vitro, but ciliary pigmented cells induce their correct polarity.
In: Cell and tissue research, 258 (2), pp. 233-42. ISSN 0302-766X,


Layer, Paul G. ; Rommel, S. ; Bülthoff, H. ; Hengstenberg, R. (1988):
Independent spatial waves of biochemical differentiation along the surface of chicken brain as revealed by the sequential expression of acetylcholinesterase.
In: Cell and tissue research, 251 (3), pp. 587-95. ISSN 0302-766X,

Liu, L. ; Cheng, S. H. ; Jiang, L. Z. ; Hansmann, G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1988):
The pigmented epithelium sustains cell growth and tissue differentiation of chicken retinal explants in vitro.
In: Experimental eye research, 46 (5), pp. 801-12. ISSN 0014-4835,


Layer, Paul G. ; Sporns, O. (1987):
Spatiotemporal relationship of embryonic cholinesterases with cell proliferation in chicken brain and eye.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84 (1), pp. 284-8. ISSN 0027-8424,

Layer, Paul G. ; Alber, R. ; Sporns, O. (1987):
Quantitative development and molecular forms of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase during morphogenesis and synaptogenesis of chick brain and retina.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 49 (1), pp. 175-82. ISSN 0022-3042,

Vollmer, G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1987):
Cholinesterases and cell proliferation in "nonstratified" and "stratified" cell aggregates from chicken retina and tectum.
In: Cell and tissue research, 250 (3), pp. 481-7. ISSN 0302-766X,


Liu, L. ; Halfter, W. ; Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Inhibition of cell proliferation by cytosine-arabinoside and its interference with spatial and temporal differentiation patterns in the chick retina.
In: Cell and tissue research, 244 (3), pp. 501-13. ISSN 0302-766X,

Vollmer, G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Reaggregation of chick retinal and mixtures of retinal and pigment epithelial cells: the degree of laminar organization is dependent on age.
In: Neuroscience letters, 63 (1), pp. 91-5. ISSN 0304-3940,

Vollmer, G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Lucifer Yellow stains a subpopulation of chicken retinoblasts preferentially 3 h after their last round of DNA synthesis.
In: Brain research, 392 (1-2), pp. 253-6. ISSN 0006-8993,

Vollmer, G. ; Layer, Paul G. (1986):
An in vitro model of proliferation and differentiation of the chick retina: coaggregates of retinal and pigment epithelial cells.
In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 6 (7), pp. 1885-96. ISSN 0270-6474,


Liu, L. ; Layer, Paul G. (1984):
Spatio-temporal patterns of differentiation of whole heads of the embryonic chick as revealed by binding of a FITC-coupled peanut-agglutinin (FITC-PNA).
In: Brain research, 314 (2), pp. 173-82. ISSN 0006-8993,

Vollmer, G. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Gierer, A. (1984):
Reaggregation of embryonic chick retina cells: pigment epithelial cells induce a high order of stratification.
In: Neuroscience letters, 48 (2), pp. 191-6. ISSN 0304-3940,


Layer, Paul G. ; Shooter, E. M. (1983):
Binding and degradation of nerve growth factor by PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.
In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 258 (5), pp. 3012-8. ISSN 0021-9258,

Layer, Paul G. ; Vollmer, G. ; Kotz, S. (1983):
Selective uptake of Lucifer Yellow into different cell populations of the developing chicken retina.
In: Neuroscience letters, 35 (3), pp. 239-45. ISSN 0304-3940,

Liu, L. ; Layer, Paul G. ; Gierer, A. (1983):
Binding of FITC-coupled peanut-agglutinin (FITC-PNA) to embryonic chicken retinas reveals developmental spatio-temporal patterns.
In: Brain research, 284 (2-3), pp. 223-9. ISSN 0006-8993,

Layer, Paul G. ; Kotz, S. (1983):
Asymmetrical developmental pattern of uptake of Lucifer Yellow into amacrine cells in the embryonic chick retina.
In: Neuroscience, 9 (4), pp. 931-41. ISSN 0306-4522,

Layer, Paul G. (1983):
Comparative localization of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase during morphogenesis of the chicken brain.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 80 (20), pp. 6413-7. ISSN 0027-8424,


Layer, Paul G. ; Vollmer, G. (1982):
Lucifer yellow stains displaced amacrine cells of the chicken retina during embryonic development.
In: Neuroscience letters, 31 (2), pp. 99-104. ISSN 0304-3940,

This list was generated on Fri Sep 17 04:38:31 2021 CEST.