Developmental Biology and Neurogenetics

Prof. Dr. Paul G. Layer

What is Developmental Biology?

Developmental Biology analyses highly integrated feedback processes at molecular, cellular and histological levels, which direct the entire development from fertilisation of the egg through maturation of the adult organism. As systems of study, we use appropriate model embryos, e.g. from chicken, zebrafish or mouse.

This knowledge is ground-breaking for all biomedical progress (e.g. stem cell biology, regenerative medicine, cancer research), as well as for a better understanding of evolution. In this group, we investigate molecular and cellular processes of development of the eyes (retina), the brain, or limbs. Thereby, acetylcholine and its protein components (e.g. cholinesterases) play a central role.

What is Neurogenetics?

Neurogenetics as part of developmental biology investigates molecular bases of the embryonic formation of nervous systems. A general question is, how a huge number of specific neuronal connections as required for a functional brain (1016/person) can be established, given that the total number of genes in man is very limited (2x104/person). Thereby, we analyse roles of acetylcholine and various growth factors.

Due to its simple layered structure, we focus on the development of the vertebrate retina in eyes from chicken and mouse embryos. Our cell biological techniques also allow us to culture artificial retinal tissues from stem cells (e.g. retinal spheroids), as well as develop methods for replacement of animal experiments.

Possible schemes of developmental actions of ACh and
AChE in neurite growth
Picture: Paul Layer

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) degrading the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is a most remarkable protein, not only because it is one of the fastest enzymes in nature, but also since it appears in many molecular forms and is regulated by elaborate genetic networks. Moreover, specific inhibitors of cholinesterase (ChEs) play major roles in everyday life as medical therapeutics, as pesticides in agriculture and households, and as chemical warfare agents (nerve gases).

As revealed by sensitive histochemical procedures, AChE is expressed specifically in many tissues during development and in many mature organisms, as well as in healthy and diseased states. Therefore it is not surprising that there has been a long-standing search for additional, “non-classical” functions of cholinesterases (ChEs). In principle, AChE could either act non-enzymatically, e.g. exerting cell adhesive roles, or, alternatively, it could work within the frame of classic cholinergic systems, but in non-neural tissues. AChE might be considered a highly co-opting protein, since possibly it combines such various functions within one molecule.

Our research into ChEs functioning has focused upon i) the expression of ChEs in the neural tube and their close relation to cell proliferation and differentiation, ii) that AChE expression reflects a polycentric brain development, iii) the retina as a model for AChE functioning in neural network formation, and iv) non-neural ChEs in limb development and mature bones. Also, possible roles of AChE in neuritic growth and of cholinergic regulations in stem cells.

AChE functions in proper formation of the mouse retina. An AChE knockout mouse (right) presents disturbed sublayer formation of the inner plexiform layer (IPL; a synaptic layer). Staining: calretinin. Details in Bytyqi et al. 2004.

Possible schemes of developmental actions of ACh and AChE in neurite growth, cell contact formation and cell signaling. (a) secreted ACh from growth cone stops its further advancement („deceleration“). (b) approaching an AChE+ target cell, secreted ACh is degraded and growth cone is further attracted („attraction“), (c) „adhesion“ between two cells could be further stabilised by heterotypic interaction of ChED proteins (e.g. neuroligins, AChE) with neurexins. (d) Alternatively, AChE can bind to laminin of the ECM, which in turn can bind to integrin-2, enabling „adhesion“ and „signaling“ into cell interior. Further see Vogel-Höpker et al. 2010

Picture: Paul Layer

The highly ordered organisation of cell types within distinct cell layers is a typical feature of many areas of vertebrate brains, representing a necessary requisite of functional neuronal networks. We study the formation of cell layers both in vivo and in vitro, by using as model systems retinae from chick embryos and neonatal rodents.

As our major in vitro approach, we take advantage of so called retinal spheroids, e.g. the cellular reconstruction of more or less complete 3-dimensional retinal tissue spheres from fully dispersed cells. This technology enables us to define the requirements and constraints of the formation of retinal tissues by a cell-to-cell reaggregation analysis. Noticeably, spheres are fully amenable for molecular intervention towards specific aspects of retinal differentiation, e.g. by use of siRNA techniques.

Retinal spheroids can be used i) for retinal tissue engineering, provided that appropriate stem cells become available, and ii) for developing living biosensors (e.g. testing of environmentally dangerous chemicals, such as pesticides), and thus can become valuable tools to reduce animal experimentation.

1948 born in Beutelsbach / Stuttgart, Germany.

1969 – 1973 Studies of food sciences in Stuttgart-Hohenheim.

1976 PhD at University of Konstanz under Prof. F. Hucho on Photoaffinty labeling of nicotinic cholinergic receptor and acetylcholinesterase.

1977 – 1979 Postdoc at Stanford School of Medicine, USA with Prof. E. Shooter. Signaltransduction & Degradation of Nerve growth factor (NGF).

1980 – 1991 Research on development of vertebrate brains and retina in department of Prof. A. Gierer at MPI for Devel. Biol., Tübingen; “Heisenberg”-grant. Habilitation in “Zoologie” at University of Tübingen.

1986, 1990 Extended research periods at the MPG-Guest laboratory at the Institute for Cell Biology, Academia Sinica, Shanghai, VR China.

since 1991 – 2015 Full Professor for Devel Biol & Neurogenetics at Technische Universität Darmstadt (TUDa). Teaching of Developmental, Human & Evolutionary Biology.

1995 – 1996 Director of the Institute for Zoology, TUDa.

1999 Invited Guest Professor for Cognitive & Brain Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Japan.

1993 – 1994 Dean of Faculty for Biology at TUDa (Fachbereich Biologie der TUDa)

2002 – 2005

1993-date Mentor for most qualified students from all disciplines at TUDa, supported by Studienstiftung des Deutschen Volkes. Award of Daidalos medal in 2013.

2015 retirement from teaching & research position.

2015-date Forschungsmentor of TUDa, supporting young investigators with their grant applications.

Manyfold international cooperations: EU, USA, China, India, Japan. Reviewer for international journals of neuroscience and developmental biology, as well as for many research foundations.

Publication of approx. 180 peer reviewed articles in internationally renowned journals on the following research topics: development of retina, brain vesicles, somites, trunk, appendages of chicken embryo and mouse embryos, establishment of retinal spheroid technologies, tissue engineering of retina, non-neuronal embryonic functions of cholinesterases and cholinergic systems, stem cell biology, radiation biology; science philosophy.

Jump to: 2021 | 2020 | 2019 | 2018 | 2017 | 2016 | 2015 | 2014 | 2013 | 2012 | 2011 | 2010 | 2009 | 2008 | 2007 | 2006 | 2005 | 2004 | 2003 | 2002 | 2001 | 2000 | 1999 | 1998 | 1997 | 1996 | 1995 | 1994 | 1993 | 1992 | 1991 | 1990 | 1989 | 1988 | 1987 | 1986 | 1984 | 1983 | 1982
Number of items: 152.

2021

Luo, Xiaohe and Lauwers, Marianne and Layer, Paul G. and Wen, Chunyi (2021):
Non-neuronal Role of Acetylcholinesterase in Bone Development and Degeneration.
In: Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8, p. 620543. ISSN 2296-634X,
DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2020.620543,
[Article]

2020

Frohns, Florian and Frohns, Antonia and Kramer, Johanna and Meurer, Katharina and Rohrer-Bley, Carla and Solovei, Irina and Hicks, David and Layer, Paul G. and Löbrich, Markus (2020):
Differences in the Response to DNA Double-Strand Breaks between Rod Photoreceptors of Rodents, Pigs, and Humans.
In: Cells, 9 (4), pp. E947. ISSN 2073-4409,
DOI: 10.3390/cells9040947,
[Article]

Spieker, Janine and Frieß, Johannes L. and Sperling, Laura and Thangaraj, Gopenath and Vogel-Höpker, A. and Layer, Paul G. (2020):
Cholinergic control of bone development and beyond.
In: International immunopharmacology, 83, p. 106405. ISSN 1878-1705,
DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2020.106405,
[Article]

2019

Bachmann, Gesine and Frohns, Florian and Thangaraj, Gopenath and Bausch, Alexander and Layer, Paul G. (2019):
IPL Sublamination in Chicken Retinal Spheroids Is Initiated via Müller Cells and Cholinergic Differentiation, and Is Disrupted by NMDA Signaling.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 60 (14), pp. 4759-4773. ISSN 1552-5783,
DOI: 10.1167/iovs.18-24952,
[Article]

Shirahama, Misaki and Steinfeld, Ichie and Karaiwa, Akari and Taketani, Shigeru and Vogel-Höpker, A. and Layer, Paul G. and Araki, Masasuke (2019):
Change in the developmental fate of the chick optic vesicle from the neural retina to the telencephalon.
In: Development, Growth & Differentiation, 61 (3), pp. 252-262. ISSN 0012-1592,
DOI: 10.1111/dgd.12599,
[Article]

2018

Heselich, Anja and Frieß, Johannes L. and Ritter, Sylvia and Benz, Naja P. and Layer, Paul G. and Thielemann, Christiane (2018):
High LET radiation shows no major cellular and functional effects on primary cardiomyocytes in vitro.
In: Life sciences in space research, 16, pp. 93-100. ISSN 2214-5532,
[Article]

Thomsen, Andreas R. and Aldrian, Christine and Bronsert, Peter and Thomann, Yi and Nanko, Norbert and Melin, Nicolas and Rücker, Gerta and Follo, Marie and Grosu, Anca L. and Niedermann, Gabriele and Layer, Paul G. and Heselich, Anja and Lund, Per G. (2018):
A deep conical agarose microwell array for adhesion independent three-dimensional cell culture and dynamic volume measurement.
In: Lab on a chip, 18 (1), pp. 179-189. ISSN 1473-0189,
[Article]

2017

König, Anke and Zöller, Nadja and Kippenberger, Stefan and Bernd, August and Kaufmann, Roland and Layer, Paul G. and Heselich, Anja (2017):
Non-thermal near-infrared exposure photobiomodulates cellular responses to ionizing radiation in human full thickness skin models.
In: Journal of photochemistry and photobiology. B, Biology, 178, pp. 115-123. ISSN 1873-2682,
[Article]

Steinfeld, Jörg and Steinfeld, Ichie and Bausch, Alexander and Coronato, Nicola and Hampel, Meggi-Lee and Depner, Heike and Layer, Paul G. and Vogel-Höpker, A. (2017):
BMP-induced reprogramming of the neural retina into retinal pigment epithelium requires Wnt signalling.
In: Biology open, 6 (7), pp. 979-992. [Article]

König, Anke and Heselich, Anja and Zöller, N. and Kaufmann, R. and Kippenberger, S. and Layer, Paul G. (2017):
Evaluation of the radiation-induced stress response in a human full thickness skin model.
In: Experimental dermatology, 26 (3), pp. E87. ISSN 0906-6705,
[Article]

Spieker, Janine and Mudersbach, Thomas and Vogel-Höpker, A. and Layer, Paul G. (2017):
Endochondral Ossification Is Accelerated in Cholinesterase-Deficient Mice and in Avian Mesenchymal Micromass Cultures.
In: PloS one, 12 (1), ISSN 1932-6203,
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0170252,
[Article]

2016

Thangaraj, Gopenath and Manakov, Vadim and Cucu, Aljona and Fournier, Claudia and Layer, Paul G. (2016):
Inflammatory effects of TNFα are counteracted by X-ray irradiation and AChE inhibition in mouse micromass cultures.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 259 (Pt. B), pp. 313-318. ISSN 1872-7786,
[Article]

Mayer, Margot and Kaiser, Nicole and Layer, Paul G. and Frohns, Florian (2016):
Cell Cycle Regulation and Apoptotic Responses of the Embryonic Chick Retina by Ionizing Radiation.
In: PloS one, 11 (5), pp. e0155093. ISSN 1932-6203,
[Article]

Spieker, Janine and Ackermann, Anica and Salfelder, Anika and Vogel-Höpker, A. and Layer, Paul G. (2016):
Acetylcholinesterase Regulates Skeletal In Ovo Development of Chicken Limbs by ACh-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms.
In: PloS one, 11 (8), pp. e0161675. ISSN 1932-6203,
[Article]

2015

Thangaraj, Gopenath and Christophel, Jeanette and Bachmann, Gesine and Greif, Alexander and Layer, Paul G. (2015):
PEDF counteracts DL-α-aminoadipate toxicity and rescues gliotoxic damages in RPE-free chicken retinal explants.
In: Experimental eye research, 134, pp. 111-122. ISSN 1096-0007,
[Article]

Frieß, Johannes L. and Heselich, Anja and Ritter, Sylvia and Haber, Angelina and Kaiser, Nicole and Layer, Paul G. and Thielemann, Christiane (2015):
Electrophysiologic and cellular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after X-ray irradiation.
In: Mutation research, 777, pp. 1-10. ISSN 1873-135X,
[Article]

Simoniello, Palma and Wiedemann, Julia and Zink, Joana and Thoennes, Eva and Stange, Maike and Layer, Paul G. and Kovacs, Maximilian and Podda, Maurizio and Durante, Marco and Fournier, Claudia (2015):
Exposure to Carbon Ions Triggers Proinflammatory Signals and Changes in Homeostasis and Epidermal Tissue Organization to a Similar Extent as Photons.
In: Frontiers in oncology, 5, p. 294. ISSN 2234-943X,
[Article]

2014

Frieß, Johannes and Heselich, Anja and Ritter, Sylvia and Layer, Paul G. and Thielemann, Christiane (2014):
Electrophysiologic and molecular characteristics of cardiomyocytes after heavy ion irradiation in the frame of the ESA IBER-10 program.
In: Journal of radiation research, 55 (Suppl 1), pp. i40-i41. ISSN 1349-9157,
[Article]

Frohns, Antonia and Frohns, Florian and Naumann, Steffen C. and Layer, Paul G. and Löbrich, Markus (2014):
Inefficient Double-Strand Break Repair in Murine Rod Photoreceptors with Inverted Heterochromatin Organization.
In: Current biology : CB, 24 (10), pp. 1080-1090. ISSN 1879-0445,
[Article]

Bodur, Ebru and Layer, Paul G. (2014):
PKC stimulation increases expression of cholinesterases in R28 cell line.
In: Turkish Journal of Biochemistry - Turk Biyokimya Dergisi, 39 (2), pp. 201-205. ISSN 0250-4685,
[Article]

2013

Layer, Paul G. and Klaczinski, Janine and Salfelder, Anika and Sperling, Laura E. and Thangaraj, Gopenath and Tuschl, Corina and Vogel-Höpker, A. (2013):
Cholinesterases in development: AChE as a firewall to inhibit cell proliferation and support differentiation.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 203 (1), pp. 269-276. ISSN 1872-7786,
[Article]

Steinfeld, Jörg and Steinfeld, Ichie and Coronato, Nicola and Hampel, Meggi-Lee and Layer, Paul G. and Araki, Masasuke and Vogel-Höpker, A. (2013):
RPE specification in the chick is mediated by surface ectoderm-derived BMP and Wnt signalling.
In: Development (Cambridge, England), 140 (24), pp. 4959-69. ISSN 1477-9129,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Klaczinski, Janine and Vogel-Höpker, A. and Thangaraj, Gopenath (2013):
Developmental cholinergic mechanism : Do not forget the colinesterases!
In: Autonomic neuroscience : basic and clinical, 177, pp. 1-65. [Article]

2012

Vogel-Höpker, A. and Sperling, Laura E. and Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Co-opting functions of cholinesterases in neural, limb and stem cell development.
In: Protein and peptide letters, 19 (2), pp. 155-164. ISSN 1875-5305,
[Article]

Heselich, Anja and Frohns, Florian and Frohns, Antonia and Naumann, Steffen C. and Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Near-infrared exposure changes cellular responses to ionizing radiation.
In: Photochemistry and photobiology, 88 (1), pp. 135-46. ISSN 1751-1097,
[Article]

Daus, Andreas W. and Layer, Paul G. and Thielemann, Christiane (2012):
A spheroid-based biosensor for the label-free detection of drug-induced field potential alterations.
In: Sensors and actuators B: Chemical, 165 (1), pp. 53-58. [Article]

Sperling, Laura E. and Klaczinski, Janine and Schütz, Corina and Rudolph, Lydia and Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Mouse acetylcholinesterase enhances neurite outgrowth of rat r28 cells through interaction with laminin-1.
In: PloS one, 7 (5), pp. e36683. ISSN 1932-6203,
[Article]

Thangaraj, Gopenath and Greif, Alexander and Bachmann, Gesine and Layer, Paul G. (2012):
Intricate paths of cells and networks becoming "Cholinergic" in the embryonic chicken retina.
In: The Journal of comparative neurology, 520 (14), pp. 3181-93. ISSN 1096-9861,
[Article]

2011

Bodur, Ebru and Layer, Paul G. (2011):
Counter-regulation of cholinesterases: differential activation of PKC and ERK signaling in retinal cells through BChE knockdown.
In: Biochimie, 93 (3), pp. 469-76. ISSN 1638-6183,
[Article]

Berchtold, Doris and Fesser, Stephanie and Bachmann, Gesine and Kaiser, Alexander and Eilert, John-Christian and Frohns, Florian and Sadoni, Nicolas and Muck, Joscha and Kremmer, Elisabeth and Eick, Dirk and Layer, Paul G. and Zink, Daniele (2011):
Nuclei of chicken neurons in tissues and three-dimensional cell cultures are organized into distinct radial zones.
In: Chromosome research : an international journal on the molecular, supramolecular and evolutionary aspects of chromosome biology, 19 (2), pp. 165-82. ISSN 1573-6849,
[Article]

Daus, Andreas W. and Goldhammer, Michael and Layer, Paul G. and Thielemann, Christiane (2011):
Electromagnetic exposure of scaffold-free three-dimensional cell culture systems.
In: Bioelectromagnetics, 32 (5), pp. 351-9. ISSN 1521-186X,
[Article]

Thangaraj, Gopenath and Greif, Alexander and Layer, Paul G. (2011):
Simple explant culture of the embryonic chicken retina with long-term preservation of photoreceptors.
In: Experimental eye research, 93 (4), pp. 556-64. ISSN 1096-0007,
[Article]

2010

Landgraf, Dominic and Barth, Mareike and Layer, Paul G. and Sperling, Laura E. (2010):
Acetylcholine as a possible signaling molecule in embryonic stem cells: studies on survival, proliferation and death.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 187 (1-3), pp. 115-9. ISSN 1872-7786,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Araki, Masasuke and Vogel-Höpker, A. (2010):
New concepts for reconstruction of retinal and pigment epithelial tissues.
In: Expert Review of Ophthalmology, 5 (4), pp. 523-543. [Article]

2009

Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Wie Schlangen ihre Beine verloren : die Beziehung zwischen Evolutionstheorie und Entwicklungstheorie.
In: hoch3, p. 7. Technische Universität Darmstadt, [Article]

Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Schlüssel zum Verständnis der Evolution : Evolutionary Theory und Developmental Biology werden kombiniert zu „EvoDevo“.
In: Darmstädter Echo, (Wissenschaftsseite), [Article]

Frohns, Florian and Mager, Magnus and Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Basic fibroblast growth factor increases the precursor pool of photoreceptors, but inhibits their differentiation and apoptosis in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 29 (10), pp. 1931-42. ISSN 1460-9568,
[Article]

Rajesh, Ramanna V. and Chitra, Loganathan and Layer, Paul G. and Boopathy, Rathanam (2009):
The aryl acylamidase activity is much more sensitive to Alzheimer drugs than the esterase activity of acetylcholinesterase in chicken embryonic brain.
In: Biochimie, 91 (9), pp. 1087-94. ISSN 1638-6183,
[Article]

Rajesh, Ramanna V. and Layer, Paul G. and Boopathy, Rathanam (2009):
High aryl acylamidase activity associated with cobra venom acetylcholinesterase: biological significance.
In: Biochimie, 91 (11-12), pp. 1450-6. ISSN 1638-6183,
[Article]

Volpert, Katja N. and Tombran-Tink, Joyce and Barnstable, Colin and Layer, Paul G. (2009):
PEDF and GDNF are key regulators of photoreceptor development and retinal neurogenesis in reaggregates from chick embryonic retina.
In: Journal of ocular biology, diseases, and informatics, 2 (1), pp. 1-11. ISSN 1936-8445,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (2009):
Doppelkopf und Schrumpfbein : Evolutionsspiele im Embryo.
In: labor&more, (5), p. 2. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. Souvignier, Georg (ed.) (2009):
Über Freiheiten des Menschen: mit dem Gehirn zur Welt- und dann zur Gotterkenntnis.
In: Gottesbilder : an der Grenze zwischen Naturwissenschaft und Theologie, pp. 144-160, Darmstadt, WBG, ISBN 978-3-534-22149-3,
[Book Section]

2008

Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Vom Überlebenskampf von Rassen und Genen : Darwins Abstammungslehre weltanschaulich instrumentalisiert vom Dritten Reich bis heute : Vortrag in der Odenwald-Akademie in der Synagoge Michelstadt am 13.03.2008.
Michelstadt, 13.03.2008, [Conference or Workshop Item]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Acetylcholinesterase in cell adhesion, neurite growth and network formation.
In: The FEBS journal, 275 (4), pp. 618-24. ISSN 1742-464X,
[Article]

Rieke, Matthias and Gottwald, Eric and Weibezahn, Karl-Friedrich and Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Tissue reconstruction in 3D-spheroids from rodent retina in a motion-free, bioreactor-based microstructure.
In: Lab on a chip, 8 (12), pp. 2206-13. ISSN 1473-0197,
[Article]

Sperling, L. E. and Steinert, G. and Boutter, J. and Landgraf, D. and Hescheler, J. and Pollet, D. and Layer, Paul G. (2008):
Characterisation of cholinesterase expression during murine embryonic stem cell differentiation.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 175 (1-3), pp. 156-60. ISSN 0009-2797,
[Article]

2007

Boopathy, Rathanam and Rajesh, Ramanna Valmiki and Darvesh, Sultan and Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Human serum cholinesterase from liver pathological samples exhibit highly elevated aryl acylamidase activity.
In: Clinica chimica acta; international journal of clinical chemistry, 380 (1-2), pp. 151-6. ISSN 0009-8981,
[Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Steinert, Gunnar and Koehler, Alexander and Wessler, Ignaz and Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Expression and possible functions of the cholinergic system in a murine embryonic stem cell line.
In: Life sciences, 80 (24-25), pp. 2375-9. ISSN 0024-3205,
[Article]

Bytyqi, Afrim H. and Bachmann, Gesine and Rieke, Matthias and Paraoanu, Laura E. and Layer, Paul G. (2007):
Cell-by-cell reconstruction in reaggregates from neonatal gerbil retina begins from the inner retina and is promoted by retinal pigmented epithelium.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 26 (6), pp. 1560-74. ISSN 0953-816X,
[Article]

Volpert, Katja N. and Rothermel, Andrée and Layer, Paul G. (2007):
GDNF stimulates rod photoreceptors and dopaminergic amacrine cells in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 48 (11), pp. 5306-14. ISSN 0146-0404,
[Article]

2006

Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Leichtes Bauen in der Natur.
In: Thema Forschung, pp. 4-8. [Article]

Rothermel, Andree and Burghardt, Mirjam and Volpert, Katja and Robitzki, Andrea and Layer, Paul G. and Lantzsch, Christina (2006):
Knock-down of GFR-alpha-4 expression by RNA interference affects the development of retinal cell types in three-dimensional histotypic retinal spheres.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 47 (6), pp. 2716-2725. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Christ, Elmar and Becker-Roeck, Michaela and Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Expression patterns of neurexin-1 and neuroligins in brain and retina of the chick embryo.
In: Neuroscience letters, 3, pp. 114-117. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Mocko, J. B. and Becker-Roeck, Michaela and Smidek-Huhn, Jutta and Layer, Paul G. (2006):
Exposure to diazinon alters in vitro retinogenesis : retinospheroid morphology, development of chicken retinal cell types and gene expression.
In: Toxicological sciences, 89, pp. 314-324. [Article]

Manoharan, Indumathi and Wieseler, Stacy and Layer, Paul G. and Lockridge, Oksana and Boopathy, Rathanam (2006):
Naturally occurring mutation Leu307Pro of human butyrylcholinesterase in the Vysya community of India.
In: Pharmacogenetics and genomics, 16 (7), pp. 461-468. [Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Steinert, G. and Klaczinski, J. and Becker-Roeck, Michaela and Bytyqi, Afrim H. and Layer, Paul G. (2006):
On functions of cholinesterases during embryonic development.
In: Journal of molecular neuroscience, 30 (1-2), pp. 201-204. [Article]

2005

Bytyqi, Afrim H. and Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Lamina formation in the Mongolian gerbil retina (Meriones unguiculatus).
In: Anatomy & embryology, 209 (3), pp. 217-226. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Vernünftiges und vernünftig Vermutetes zu Gehirn, Geist und Gott.
In: Arnoldshainer Texte, In: Gott - Geist - Gehirn : religiöse Erfahrungen im Lichte der neuesten Hirnforschung, pp. 134-161, Frankfurt am Main, Haag + Herchen, ISBN 3-89846-356-7,
[Book Section]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Weiss, B. and Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Cytochrome-c oxidase is one of several genes elevated in marginal retina of the chick embryo.
In: Neuroscience, 132, pp. 665-672. [Article]

Rothermel, Andree and Biedermann, Thomas and Weigel, Winnie and Kurz, Randy and Rüffer, Markus and Layer, Paul G. and Robitzki, Andrea (2005):
Artificial design of three-dimensional retina-like tissue from dissociated cells of the mammalian retina by rotation-mediated cell aggregation.
In: Tissue engineering, 11 (11-12), pp. 1749-1756. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Allebrandt, Karla V. and Andermann, P. and Bodur, E. and Boopathy, Rathanam and Bytyqi, Afrim H. and Paraoanu, Laura E. (2005):
On the multifunctionally of cholinesterases.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157 (15), pp. 37-41. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. Rossmann, Torsten and Tropea, Cameron (eds.) (2005):
Mit Stammzellen und Tissue Engineering zu Netzhautimplantaten.
In: Bionik : aktuelle Forschungsergebnisse in Natur-, Ingenieur- und Geisteswissenschaft, pp. 439-449, Berlin [u.a.], Springer, ISBN 3-540-21890-4,
[Book Section]

Aluigi, M. G. and Angelini, C. and Falugi, C. and Fossa, R. and Genever, P. and Gallus, L. and Layer, Paul G. and Prestipino, G. and Rakonczay, Z. and Sgro, M. and Thielecke, H. and Trombino, S. (2005):
Interaction between organophosphate compounds and cholinergic functions during development.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 1, pp. 305-316. [Article]

Allebrandt, Karla V. and Rajesh, Valmiki and Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Expression of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and aryl acylamidase (AAA) during early zebrafish embryogenesis.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157-158, pp. 353-355. ISSN 0009-2797,
[Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Mouse AChE binds in vivo to domain IV of laminin-1beta.
In: Chemico-biological interactions, 157-158, pp. 411-413. ISSN 0009-2797,
[Article]

Jacob, V. and Rothermel, Andree and Wolf, Peter and Layer, Paul G. (2005):
Rhodopsin, violet and blue opsin expressions in the chick are highly dependent on tissue and serum conditions.
In: Cells tissues organs, 180 (3), pp. 159-168. [Article]

2004

Rothermel, Andrée and Volpert, Katja and Schlichting, Ralf and Huhn, Jutta and Stotz-Reimers, Meike and Robitzki, Andrea A. and Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Spatial and temporal expression patterns of GDNF family receptor alpha4 in the developing chicken retina.
In: Gene expression patterns : GEP, 4 (1), pp. 59-63. ISSN 1567-133X,
[Article]

Seydewitz, Vera and Rothermel, Andrée and Fuhrmann, Sabine and Schneider, Anikó and DeGrip, Willem J. and Layer, Paul G. and Hofmann, Hans-Dieter (2004):
Expression of CNTF receptor-alpha in chick violet-sensitive cones with unique morphologic properties.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 45 (2), pp. 655-61. ISSN 0146-0404,
[Article]

Boopathy, Rathanam and Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Aryl acylamidase activity on acetylcholinesterase is high during early chicken brain development.
In: The protein journal, 23 (5), pp. 325-33. ISSN 1572-3887,
[Article]

Paraoanu, Laura E. and Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Mouse acetylcholinesterase interacts in yeast with the extracellular matrix component laminin-1beta.
In: FEBS letters, 576 (1-2), pp. 161-4. ISSN 0014-5793,
[Article]

Bytyqi, Afrim H. and Lockridge, Oksana and Duysen, Ellen and Wang, Yuxia and Wolfrum, Uwe and Layer, Paul G. (2004):
Impaired formation of the inner retina in an AChE knockout mouse results in degeneration of all photoreceptors.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 20 (11), pp. 2953-62. ISSN 0953-816X,
[Article]

Dabouras, Vasili and Rothermel, Andrée and Reiniger-Mack, Alexandra and Wien, Sascha L. and Layer, Paul G. and Robitzki, Andrea (2004):
Exogenous application of glucose induces aging in rat cerebral oligodendrocytes as revealed by alteration in telomere length.
In: Neuroscience letters, 368 (1), pp. 68-72. [Article]

2003

Naruoka, Hidenori and Kojima, Ryosuke and Ohmasa, Motoko and Layer, Paul G. and Saito, Takehiko (2003):
Transient muscarinic calcium mobilisation in transdifferentiating as in reaggregating embyronic chick retinae.
In: Developmental brain research, 143 (2), pp. 233-244. [Article]

Rothermel, Andrée and Layer, Paul G. (2003):
GDNF regulates chicken rod photoreceptor development and survival in reaggregated histotypic retinal spheres.
In: Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 44 (5), pp. 2221-2228. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. Schmidt, Jan C. (ed.) (2003):
Zu Evolution und Entwicklung von Hirn und Bewußtsein oder: von Zellen, neuronalen Netzen und quälender Qualia.
In: Der entthronte Mensch : Anfragen der Neurowissenschaften an unser Menschenbild, pp. 79-96, Paderborn, Mentis, ISBN 3-89785-296-9.,
[Book Section]

Layer, Paul G. Bender, Wolfgang and Schmidt, Jan C. (eds.) (2003):
Der biomedizinische Fortschritt.
In: Darmstädter interdisziplinäre Beiträge, In: Zukunftsorientierte Wissenschaft : prospektive Wissenschafts- und Technikbewertung, pp. 63-75, Münster, Agenda-Verl., ISBN 3-89688-199-X,
[Book Section]

2002

Layer, Paul G. and Robitzki, Andrea (2002):
Von Stammzellen zu Gewebemodellen und Biosensoren in Medizin und Umwelttechnik.
In: Bionik : biologisch-technische Systeme. (Thema Forschung), (2), pp. 92-97. [Article]

Anselmet, Alain and Mayat, Ebrahim and Wietek, Stefan and Layer, Paul G. and Payrastre, Bernard and Massoulié, Jean (2002):
Non-antisense cellular responses to oligonucleotides.
In: FEBS letters, 510 (3), pp. 175-80. ISSN 0014-5793,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Robitzki, Andrea and Rothermel, Andrée and Willbold, Elmar (2002):
Of layers and spheres: the reaggregate approach in tissue engineering.
In: Trends in neurosciences, 25 (3), pp. 131-4. ISSN 0166-2236,
[Article]

Willbold, Elmar and Huhn, Jutta and Korf, Horst-Werner and Voisin, Pierre and Layer, Paul G. (2002):
Light-dark and circadian melatonin rhythms are established de novo in re-aggregates of the embryonic chicken retina.
In: Developmental neuroscience, 24 (6), pp. 504-11. ISSN 0378-5866,
[Article]

2001

Layer, Paul G. and Rothermel, A. and Willbold, E. (2001):
From stem cells towards neural layers: a lesson from re-aggregated embryonic retinal cells.
12, In: NeuroReport, pp. A39-A46. [Article]

Willbold, Elmar and Rothermel, A. and Huhn, J. and Reinicke, M. and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Cerebellar glia cells induce a correct laminar organization in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Cells tissues organs, 169 (2), pp. 104-112. [Article]

Keller, Markus and Robitzki, Andrea and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Heterologous expression of acetylcholinesterase affects proliferation and glial cytoskeleton of adherent chicken retinal cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 306, pp. 187-198. [Article]

Robitzki, Andrea and Mack, A. and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Die in vitro Netzhaut als Modell des zentralen Nervensystems: Entwicklung neuer Diagnostik- und Therapieformen für neurodegenerative Erkrankungen.
In: BIOforum, 24, pp. 222-225. [Article]

Rothermel, Andrée and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Photoreceptor plasticity in reaggregates of embryonic chick retina: rods depend on proximal cones and on tissue organization.
In: European journal of neuroscience, 13 (5), pp. 949-958. [Article]

Keller, Markus and Robitzki, Andrea and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Anticholinesterase treatment of chicken retinal cells increases acetylcholinesterase protein independently of protein kinase C.
In: Neuroscience letters, 309 (1), pp. 21-24. [Article]

Willbold, E. and Rothermel, A. and Huhn, J. and Stelck, S. and Layer, Paul G. (2001):
Inhibition of alpha(1-6)-linked fucose decreases inner retinal cells and increases photoreceptors in chicken retinal reaggregates.
In: Developmental neuroscience, 23 (6), pp. 464-72. ISSN 0378-5866,
[Article]

2000

Willbold, E. and Rothermel, A. and Tomlinson, S. and Layer, Paul G. (2000):
Müller glia cells reorganize reaggregating chicken retinal cells into correctly laminated in vitro retinae.
In: Glia, 29 (1), pp. 45-57. ISSN 0894-1491,
[Article]

Robitzki, A. and Döll, F. and Richter-Landsberg, C. and Layer, Paul G. (2000):
Regulation of the rat oligodendroglia cell line OLN-93 by antisense transfection of butyrylcholinesterase.
In: Glia, 31 (3), pp. 195-205. ISSN 0894-1491,
[Article]

1999

Layer, Paul G. and Robitzki, Andrea (1999):
Die Netzhaut als Hirnmodell : von der Zellkultur zur biomedizinischen Technik.
In: Thema Forschung, (2), pp. 20-26. [Article]

Stelck, S. and Robitzki, A. and Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1999):
Fucose in alpha(1-6)-linkage regulates proliferation and histogenesis in reaggregated retinal spheroids of the chick embryo.
In: Glycobiology, 9 (11), pp. 1171-9. ISSN 0959-6658,
[Article]

Weitnauer, E. and Ebert, C. and Hucho, F. and Robitzki, A. and Weise, C. and Layer, Paul G. (1999):
Butyrylcholinesterase is complexed with transferrin in chicken serum.
In: Journal of protein chemistry, 18 (2), pp. 205-14. ISSN 0277-8033,
[Article]

1998

Layer, Paul G. and Rothermel, A. and Willbold, E. (1998):
Inductive effects of the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) on histogenesis of the avian retina as revealed by retinospheroid technology.
In: Seminars in cell & developmental biology, 9 (3), pp. 257-62. ISSN 1084-9521,
[Article]

Weitnauer, E. and Robitzki, A. and Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Aryl acylamidase activity exhibited by butyrylcholinesterase is higher in chick than in horse, but much lower than in fetal calf serum.
In: Neuroscience letters, 254 (3), pp. 153-6. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

Robitzki, A. and Mack, A. and Hoppe, U. and Chatonnet, A. and Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Butyrylcholinesterase antisense transfection increases apoptosis in differentiating retinal reaggregates of the chick embryo.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 71 (4), pp. p413-20. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1998):
Müller glia cells and their possible roles during retina differentiation in vivo and in vitro.
In: Histology and histopathology, 13 (2), pp. 531-52. ISSN 0213-3911,
[Article]

1997

Layer, Paul G. and Rothermel, A. and Hering, H. and Wolf, B. and deGrip, W. J. and Hicks, D. and Willbold, E. (1997):
Pigmented epithelium sustains cell proliferation and decreases expression of opsins and acetylcholinesterase in reaggregated chicken retinospheroids.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 9 (9), pp. 1795-803. ISSN 0953-816X,
[Article]

Rothermel, A. and Willbold, E. and Degrip, W. J. and Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Pigmented epithelium induces complete retinal reconstitution from dispersed embryonic chick retinae in reaggregation culture.
In: Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society, 264 (1386), pp. 1293-302. ISSN 0962-8452,
[Article]

Schober, A. and Minichiello, L. and Keller, M. and Huber, K. and Layer, Paul G. and Roig-López, J. L. and García-Arrarás, J. E. and Klein, R. and Unsicker, K. (1997):
Reduced acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in adrenal medulla and loss of sympathetic preganglionic neurons in TrkA-deficient, but not TrkB-deficient, mice.
In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 17 (3), pp. 891-903. ISSN 0270-6474,
[Article]

Reiss, Y. and Layer, Paul G. and Kröger, S. (1997):
Butyrylcholinesterase-positive cells of the developing chicken retina that are non-cholinergic and GABA-positive.
In: Brain research. Developmental brain research, 100 (1), pp. 62-72. ISSN 0165-3806,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Berger, J. and Kinkl, N. (1997):
Cholinesterases precede "ON-OFF" channel dichotomy in the embryonic chick retina before onset of synaptogenesis.
In: Cell and tissue research, 288 (3), pp. 407-16. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Robitzki, A. and Mack, A. and Hoppe, U. and Chatonnet, A. and Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Regulation of cholinesterase gene expression affects neuronal differentiation as revealed by transfection studies on reaggregating embryonic chicken retinal cells.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 9 (11), pp. 2394-405. ISSN 0953-816X,
[Article]

Robitzki, A. and Mack, A. and Chatonnet, A. and Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Transfection of reaggregating embryonic chicken retinal cells with an antisense 5'-DNA butyrylcholinesterase expression vector inhibits proliferation and alters morphogenesis.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 69 (2), pp. 823-33. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

Willbold, E. and Reinicke, M. and Layer, Paul G. (1997):
Müller cell differentiation and column formation in chicken retinospheroids.
In: Journal of brain research, 36 (2), p. 228. [Article]

1996

Weiss, Bettina and Del Turco, D. and Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Proliferating and differentiating Schwann cell cultures from embryonic chick sciatic nerve maintained for months in vitro without antimitotics or growth factors.
70, In: European journal of cell biology 70, (2), pp. 106-116. [Article]

Willbold, Elmar and Mansky, P. and Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Lateral and radial growth uncoupled in reaggregated retinospheroids of embryonic avian retina.
40, In: International journal of developmental biology, (6), pp. 1151-1159. [Article]

Reiss, Y. and Kröger, S. and Grassi, J. and Tsim, K. W. and Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Extracellular and asymmetric forms of acetylcholinesterase are expressed on cholinergic and noncholinergic terminal neuropil of the developing chick retina.
In: Cell and tissue research, 286 (1), pp. 13-22. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (1996):
Non-classical actions of cholinesterases: role in cellular differentiation, tumorigenesis and Alzheimer's disease.
In: Neurochemistry international, 28 (5-6), pp. 491-5. ISSN 0197-0186,
[Article]

1995

Willbold, Elmar and Reinicke, Michael and Lance-Jones, Cynthia and Lagenaur, Carl and Lemmon, Vance and Layer, Paul G. (1995):
Müller glia stabilizes cell columns during retinal development: lateral migration but not neuropil growth is inhibited in mixed chick-quail retinospheroids.
7, In: European journal of neuroscience, pp. 2277-2284. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Willbold, Elmar (1995):
Novel functions of cholinesterases in development, physiology and disease.
29, In: Progress in histochemistry and cytochemistry, (3), pp. 1-94. [Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Ebert, C. and Treskatis, S. and Weikert, T. and Willbold, Elmar Quinn, D. M. (ed.) (1995):
Glycosylated inactive forms of chicken butyrylcholinesterases and their possible functions.
In: Enzymes of the cholinesterase family, pp. 427-434, New York, Plenum Publ. Corp, [Book Section]

Layer, Paul G. (1995):
Nonclassical roles of cholinesterases in the embryonic brain and possible links to Alzheimer disease.
9, In: Alzheimer disease and associated disorders, (Suppl. 2), pp. 29-36. [Article]

1994

Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Butyrylcholinesterase regulates laminar retinogenesis of the chick embryo in vitro.
In: European journal of cell biology, 64 (1), pp. 192-9. ISSN 0171-9335,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Willbold, E. (1994):
Cholinesterases in avian neurogenesis.
In: International review of cytology, 151, pp. 139-81. ISSN 0074-7696,
[Article]

Weikert, T. and Rathjen, F. G. and Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Use of ELISA to G4 antigen to quantitate neurite outgrowth in the chick both in vivo and in vitro.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 62 (4), pp. 1570-7. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

Weikert, T. and Ebert, C. and Rasched, I. and Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Novel inactive and distinctively glycosylated forms of butyrylcholinesterase from chicken serum.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 63 (1), pp. 318-25. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

Weikert, T. and Layer, Paul G. (1994):
The carbohydrate epitope HNK-1 is present on all inactive, but not on all active forms of chicken butyrylcholinesterase.
In: Neuroscience letters, 176 (1), pp. 9-12. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

Alber, R. and Sporns, O. and Weikert, T. and Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1994):
Cholinesterases and peanut agglutinin binding related to cell proliferation and axonal growth in embryonic chick limbs.
In: Anatomy and embryology, 190 (5), pp. 429-38. ISSN 0340-2061,
[Article]

1993

Layer, Paul G. and Willbold, E. (1993):
Histogenesis of the avian retina in reaggregation culture: from dissociated cells to laminar neuronal networks.
In: International review of cytology, 146, pp. 1-47. ISSN 0074-7696,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Weikert, T. and Alber, R. (1993):
Cholinesterases regulate neurite growth of chick nerve cells in vitro by means of a non-enzymatic mechanism.
In: Cell and tissue research, 273 (2), pp. 219-26. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

1992

Willbold, Elmar and Layer, Paul G. (1992):
A Hidden Retinal Regenerative Capacity from the Chick Ciliary Margin is Reactivated In Vitro, that is Accompanied by Down-regulation of Butyrylcholinesterase.
In: The European journal of neuroscience, 4 (3), pp. 210-220. ISSN 1460-9568,
[Article]

Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1992):
Formation of neuroblastic layers in chicken retinospheroids: the fibre layer of Chievitz secludes AChE-positive cells from mitotic cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 268 (3), pp. 401-8. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Weikert, T. and Willbold, E. (1992):
Chicken retinospheroids as developmental and pharmacological in vitro models: acetylcholinesterase is regulated by its own and by butyrylcholinesterase activity.
In: Cell and tissue research, 268 (3), pp. 409-18. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Treskatis, S. and Ebert, C. and Layer, Paul G. (1992):
Butyrylcholinesterase from chicken brain is smaller than that from serum: its purification, glycosylation, and membrane association.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 58 (6), pp. 2236-47. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

1991

Wolburg, H. and Willbold, E. and Layer, Paul G. (1991):
Müller glia endfeet, a basal lamina and the polarity of retinal layers form properly in vitro only in the presence of marginal pigmented epithelium.
In: Cell and tissue research, 264 (3), pp. 437-51. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (1991):
Cholinesterases during development of the avian nervous system.
In: Cellular and molecular neurobiology, 11 (1), pp. 7-33. ISSN 0272-4340,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Kaulich, S. (1991):
Cranial nerve growth in birds is preceded by cholinesterase expression during neural crest cell migration and the formation of an HNK-1 scaffold.
In: Cell and tissue research, 265 (3), pp. 393-407. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

1990

Layer, Paul G. and Alber, R. and Mansky, P. and Vollmer, G. and Willbold, E. (1990):
Regeneration of a chimeric retina from single cells in vitro: cell-lineage-dependent formation of radial cell columns by segregated chick and quail cells.
In: Cell and tissue research, 259 (2), pp. 187-98. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Cholinesterases reveal early patterns of neurogenesis in the chick.
In: Acta histochemica. Supplementband, 38, pp. 145-50. ISSN 0567-7556,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Makovitzky, J. (1990):
The laminar development of the embryonic chicken retina in vitro as detected by "topo-optical reactions".
In: Acta histochemica. Supplementband, 40, pp. 127-31. ISSN 0567-7556,
[Article]

Liu, L. and Jiang, L. Z. and Layer, Paul G. (1990):
[Effect of pigmented epithelium from different developmental stages of chick embryo on cell growth of retinal explants].
In: Shi yan sheng wu xue bao, 23 (1), pp. 123-6. ISSN 0001-5334,
[Article]

Weikert, T. and Rathjen, F. G. and Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Developmental maps of acetylcholinesterase and G4-antigen of the early chicken brain: long-distance tracts originate from AChE-producing cell bodies.
In: Journal of neurobiology, 21 (3), pp. 482-98. ISSN 0022-3034,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Alber, R. (1990):
Patterning of chick brain vesicles as revealed by peanut agglutinin and cholinesterases.
In: Development (Cambridge, England), 109 (3), pp. 613-24. ISSN 0950-1991,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (1990):
Cholinesterases preceding major tracts in vertebrate neurogenesis.
In: BioEssays : news and reviews in molecular, cellular and developmental biology, 12 (9), pp. 415-20. ISSN 0265-9247,
[Article]

1989

Layer, Paul G. and Willbold, E. (1989):
Embryonic chicken retinal cells can regenerate all cell layers in vitro, but ciliary pigmented cells induce their correct polarity.
In: Cell and tissue research, 258 (2), pp. 233-42. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

1988

Layer, Paul G. and Rommel, S. and Bülthoff, H. and Hengstenberg, R. (1988):
Independent spatial waves of biochemical differentiation along the surface of chicken brain as revealed by the sequential expression of acetylcholinesterase.
In: Cell and tissue research, 251 (3), pp. 587-95. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Liu, L. and Cheng, S. H. and Jiang, L. Z. and Hansmann, G. and Layer, Paul G. (1988):
The pigmented epithelium sustains cell growth and tissue differentiation of chicken retinal explants in vitro.
In: Experimental eye research, 46 (5), pp. 801-12. ISSN 0014-4835,
[Article]

1987

Layer, Paul G. and Sporns, O. (1987):
Spatiotemporal relationship of embryonic cholinesterases with cell proliferation in chicken brain and eye.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 84 (1), pp. 284-8. ISSN 0027-8424,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Alber, R. and Sporns, O. (1987):
Quantitative development and molecular forms of acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase during morphogenesis and synaptogenesis of chick brain and retina.
In: Journal of neurochemistry, 49 (1), pp. 175-82. ISSN 0022-3042,
[Article]

Vollmer, G. and Layer, Paul G. (1987):
Cholinesterases and cell proliferation in "nonstratified" and "stratified" cell aggregates from chicken retina and tectum.
In: Cell and tissue research, 250 (3), pp. 481-7. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

1986

Liu, L. and Halfter, W. and Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Inhibition of cell proliferation by cytosine-arabinoside and its interference with spatial and temporal differentiation patterns in the chick retina.
In: Cell and tissue research, 244 (3), pp. 501-13. ISSN 0302-766X,
[Article]

Vollmer, G. and Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Reaggregation of chick retinal and mixtures of retinal and pigment epithelial cells: the degree of laminar organization is dependent on age.
In: Neuroscience letters, 63 (1), pp. 91-5. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

Vollmer, G. and Layer, Paul G. (1986):
Lucifer Yellow stains a subpopulation of chicken retinoblasts preferentially 3 h after their last round of DNA synthesis.
In: Brain research, 392 (1-2), pp. 253-6. ISSN 0006-8993,
[Article]

Vollmer, G. and Layer, Paul G. (1986):
An in vitro model of proliferation and differentiation of the chick retina: coaggregates of retinal and pigment epithelial cells.
In: The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 6 (7), pp. 1885-96. ISSN 0270-6474,
[Article]

1984

Liu, L. and Layer, Paul G. (1984):
Spatio-temporal patterns of differentiation of whole heads of the embryonic chick as revealed by binding of a FITC-coupled peanut-agglutinin (FITC-PNA).
In: Brain research, 314 (2), pp. 173-82. ISSN 0006-8993,
[Article]

Vollmer, G. and Layer, Paul G. and Gierer, A. (1984):
Reaggregation of embryonic chick retina cells: pigment epithelial cells induce a high order of stratification.
In: Neuroscience letters, 48 (2), pp. 191-6. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

1983

Layer, Paul G. and Shooter, E. M. (1983):
Binding and degradation of nerve growth factor by PC12 pheochromocytoma cells.
In: The Journal of biological chemistry, 258 (5), pp. 3012-8. ISSN 0021-9258,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Vollmer, G. and Kotz, S. (1983):
Selective uptake of Lucifer Yellow into different cell populations of the developing chicken retina.
In: Neuroscience letters, 35 (3), pp. 239-45. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

Liu, L. and Layer, Paul G. and Gierer, A. (1983):
Binding of FITC-coupled peanut-agglutinin (FITC-PNA) to embryonic chicken retinas reveals developmental spatio-temporal patterns.
In: Brain research, 284 (2-3), pp. 223-9. ISSN 0006-8993,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. and Kotz, S. (1983):
Asymmetrical developmental pattern of uptake of Lucifer Yellow into amacrine cells in the embryonic chick retina.
In: Neuroscience, 9 (4), pp. 931-41. ISSN 0306-4522,
[Article]

Layer, Paul G. (1983):
Comparative localization of acetylcholinesterase and pseudocholinesterase during morphogenesis of the chicken brain.
In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 80 (20), pp. 6413-7. ISSN 0027-8424,
[Article]

1982

Layer, Paul G. and Vollmer, G. (1982):
Lucifer yellow stains displaced amacrine cells of the chicken retina during embryonic development.
In: Neuroscience letters, 31 (2), pp. 99-104. ISSN 0304-3940,
[Article]

This list was generated on Fri Apr 9 03:08:53 2021 CEST.